Description: Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances in Advanced Treatment for Potable Reuse
Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS) have become a topic of recent importance in drinking water applications with the 2016 establishment of a 70 ng/L Health Advisory for the sum of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and recent widespread news of contamination of surface water in Cape Fear, NC with the PFOA-replacement Gen-X. Over the last decade, a large body...
PublisherWater Environment Federation
Word count163
Description: Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances in Advanced Treatment for Potable Reuse
As various states apply more stringent regulatory and quasi-regulatory limits, such as the State of California’s July 2018 establishment of Notification Levels for PFOS at 13 ng/L and PFOA at 14 ng/L, the concentrations typically observed in recycled water are approaching levels of regulatory relevance. Thus, this paper examines the face of PFAS in recycled water destined for potable reuse...
PublisherWater Environment Federation
Word count206
Description: Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances in Advanced Treatment for Potable Reuse
Many potable reuse projects rely on reverse osmosis (RO) as the key treatment processes to remove unwanted dissolved constituents. These membranes have been shown to be effective for PFAS compounds as well. Figure 1 demonstrates this effectiveness at the Raw Water Production Facility direct potable reuse (DPR) facility in Big Spring, Texas (adapted from Steinle-Darling et al., 2016)
PublisherWater Environment Federation
Word count189
Description: Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances in Advanced Treatment for Potable Reuse
Typical non-membrane based AWT applies a combination of ozone (O3), biologically active filtration (BAF), and granular activated carbon (GAC) as central treatment units, supplemented by substantial additional disinfection processes, such as UV, chlorine, or membrane filtration (for protozoa removal).
PublisherWater Environment Federation
Word count402
Description: Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances in Advanced Treatment for Potable Reuse
The frenzied regulatory activity on PFAS is necessitating a hard look at the fate of these compounds in all areas of water and wastewater treatment. Certainly, treatment designed specifically for the removal of PFAS will be necessary in many cases of drinking water contamination. However, for potable reuse projects, the crisis is less acute: In many cases, concentrations in conventional recycled...
PublisherWater Environment Federation
Word count182
Description: Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances in Advanced Treatment for Potable Reuse
Steinle-Darling, E., A. Salveson, J. Sutherland, E. Dickenson, D. Hokanson, R.S. Trussell, and B. Stanford, 2016. Direct Potable Reuse Monitoring: Testing Water Quality in a Municipal Wastewater Effluent Treated to Drinking Water Standards, Final Report to the Texas Water Development Board under Contract No. 1348321632 and the Water Environment and Reuse Foundation under project No. 14-10.
PublisherWater Environment Federation
Word count129