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Subscribe What's trending on Access Water Water and Wastewater Systems Cybersecurity--2021 State of the Sector Author(s)Water Sector Coordinating CouncilDocument typeTechnical ReportPrint publication date Jun, 2021Volume / Issue First / last page(s)1 - 22Copyright2021Word count200Subject keywordsOperationsCybersecurityInformation TechnologyOperational TechnologySupply Chain IntegrityRisk ManagementIndustrial Water Reclamation and Reuse to Minimize Liquid Discharge Buy Print Version Here This book serves as a comprehensive summary of water reclamation technologies and practices for minimizing liquid discharge for a broad range of industries. It is of use to practitioners, consultants, management, and research and development professionals who want a timely update on the technologies in use and on those technologies on the horizon to provide the highest rates of water recovery in industrial practice. The industrial sectors covered include oil and gas (unconventional oil and gas and produced and petroleum refining water), pharmaceutical, textile, automotive, manufacturing, energy, and food and beverage. The book covers a much broader perspective than North America, including technology development and sustainable applications within the water-scarce yet growing regions of Central and South America, Asia, and the Middle East.Author(s)Water Environment FederationSourceTechnical Practice CommitteeProject IDW110077CommitteePrepared by the Industrial Water Reclamation and Reuse to Minimize Liquid Discharge Task Force of the Water Environment Federation, under the Direction of the Industrial Wastewater Subcommittee of the Technical Practice CommitteeDocument typeDigital BookPublisherWater Environment FederationPrint publication date May, 2021Print ISBN 978-1-57278-360-7EISBN 9781572783607Volume / Issue1 / 1First / last page(s)i - 522Copyright2021Word count166,508Subject keywordsIWRR402020 National Municipal Separate Storm Sewer System (MS4) Needs Assessment Survey ResultsBased on input from leading stormwater professionals, the Water Environment Federation (WEF) Stormwater Institute (SWI) developed Rainfall to Results: The Future of Stormwater. The report detailed the challenges, opportunities, and pathways to improving the nation’s stormwater systems to make them more efficient, effective, and sustainable. The report also developed a vision for the future of stormwater: Plus, the report identified six objectives that are central to supporting the future of stormwater vision. To begin working toward these objectives, the SWI conducted national assessment surveys of municipal separate storm sewer system (MS4) permittees in 2018 and again in 2020. This report details the results.Author(s)Water Environment FederationSourceWater Environment FederationCommitteeStormwater InstituteDocument typeTechnical ReportPublisherWater Environment FederationPrint publication date Feb, 2021Volume / Issue Content sourceStormwater InstituteFirst / last page(s)1 - 34Word count13Subject keywordsStormwaterMS4Municipal Separate Storm Sewer SystemUnderstanding Polymer For Thickening And Dewatering ProcessesPolymers are excellent flocculants and are critical for use as a solids conditioner prior to thickening and dewatering equipment. Applying polymer prior to a thickening or dewatering process, or “conditioning”, is often a requirement for the thickening or dewatering equipment to successfully operate. This operator fact sheet takes readers through the basics of polymers used in thickening and dewatering processes. You will learn about different types of polymer products, how to calculate polymer dose, appropriate handling and storage of polymer products, and equipment and processes relating to make-down and activation. This information can help operators make informed decisions to save money on polymer use in water resource recovery facilities (WRRFs).Author(s)Water Environment FederationContributing authorsHeidi BauerYong KimSourceWater Environment FederationDocument typeFact SheetPublisherWater Environment FederationPrint publication date Jun, 2020Volume / Issue Content sourceOperator Initiative Advisory PanelWord count8Subject keywordswastewatertrainingfundamentalspolymerthickeningdewateringflocculationflocculantsconditioningmathOperationOperator TrainingOperatorChapter 8 of Safety, Health and Security in Wastewater Systems, MOP 1, 6th EditionSince the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire in 1911, health and safety has been an upfront management tool spoken in the same context as productivity, quality, and cost. The ﬁre showed that fatalities and injuries, if prevented, have a direct effect on the bottom line and the workforce.This Manual of Practice will serve as an injury-reduction tool to all those working in the wastewater ﬁeld. There are guidelines for creating written programs and procedures as well as guidelines that describe how to perform a conﬁned space entry, lockout/tagout, and chemical deliveries. From the laboratory to sewer system collection applications, this manual has recommendations that could help you reduce injuries and mishaps to ensure the ultimate safety of employees.Author(s)Water Environment FederationSourceMOP from Water Enviornment FederationCommitteeSafety, Health and Security in Wastewater Systems task force of WEFDocument typeDigital BookPublisherWater Environment FederationPrint publication date Sep, 2013Volume / Issue First / last page(s)1 - 385Copyright2013Word count132Subject keywordsWastewaterPPEvirusparasiteinfectionbiological hazardspathogenAerosolEvolution of Poly- and Perfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS) Management: Holistic Approach to Understanding and Reducing PFAS DischargeWEFTEC, the largest event of its kind in North America, offers water quality professionals the best in water quality education and training. With almost 200 technical sessions, workshops, mobile sessions, local facility tours and 1,000+ exhibitors, it is the premier water conference! The WEFTEC technical program is selected through a rigorous, peer-review process, ensuring that attendees experience the highest-quality education. WEFTEC speakers are experts and innovators, leading the way in water quality. The following paper was presented at WEFTEC 2019.Author(s)J. EgliM.R. HicksSourceProceedings of the Water Environment FederationSubject212 Knowledge Development Forum: What are PFAS and What Do We Need to Know?Document typeConference PaperPublisherWater Environment FederationPrint publication date Sep, 2019ISSN1938-6478DOI10.2175/193864718825156943Volume / Issue Content sourceWEFTECCopyright2019Word count2,550Subject keywordsDisinfectionAssociated keywords:Industrial Issues, Including Mining and Petro-Chemical IndustriesInteractiveLaboratory PracticesFly, swim or crawl your way to safer work conditionsFor workers in the water sector, inherent workplace conditions expose them to daily potential for serious injury. Working in the confined spaces under city streets often comes with awkward postures, incessant vibrations, extreme temperatures, and hazardous gases that can injure. For workers dealing with chemicals or risking exposure to known viruses, bacteria, protozoa, and parasites, the risks become even more complicated. Physical inspection of tanks, pipes, and reservoirs — regardless of provided safety precautions — often require workers to step into environments that carry these risks as well as potential for catastrophic physical traumas.As a result, safety is a necessity. While strict adherence to departmental safety protocols and the proper deployment of personal protective equipment can reduce injuries, the only way to truly eliminate these types of injuries is to keep workers from entering those dangerous environments in the first place.However, such a simple proposition, proves more difficult in real-world application. How does a utility actually inspect and repair small-diameter pipes, investigate sediment buildup in holding tanks, or evaluate a collapsed pipe or sewer tunnel without deploying personnel into that very dangerous situation?Historically, these projects often called for entire system segments to be taken off-line, tanks to be drained, or heavy equipment to dig up entire city blocks. Now, the burgeoning drone industry is bringing numerous purpose-built solutions to the aid of water and wastewater agencies looking for safer, more efficient, and more affordable options.Author(s)Marc GandillonSourceArticle of WE&T MagazineSubjectAutomation;Collection Systems;SafetyDocument typeMagazine ArticlePublisherWater Environment FederationPrint publication date Feb, 2019Volume / Issue31 / 2Content sourceWater Environment and Technology MagazineFirst / last page(s)32 - 35Copyright2019Word count1,480Subject keywordsdronesclosed-circuit televisionhigh-definition videoinfraredsensors3D modelsremote operated vehiclesA Convenient Spreadsheet-Based Thermal Model for Heat Recovery and Effluent CoolingThe prime objective of this work was to identify the major sources of internal heat generation and locations within the water recovery facility that provide the most potential for heat dispersion to the atmosphere. A facility-wide thermal energy model applied to each unit process was developed, calibrated and validated at two water recovery facilities....Author(s)John BratbySourceProceedings of the Water Environment FederationSubject403 Process Modeling for Industrial Wastewater System Design and OptimizationDocument typeConference PaperPublisherWater Environment FederationPrint publication date Sep, 2018ISSN1938-6478SICI1938-6478(20180101)2018:13L.2465;1-DOI10.2175/193864718825136972Volume / Issue2018 / 13Content sourceWEFTECFirst / last page(s)2465 - 2483Copyright2018Word count208Subject keywordsTemperatureHeat recoveryHeat increaseCoolingCoversNitrification new to the platform Developing a New Framework for Household Affordability and Financial Capability Assessment in the Water SectorIn anticipation of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) updating its financial capability assessment (FCA) guidelines, the American Water Works Association (AWWA), the National Association of Clean Water Agencies (NACWA), and the Water Environment Federation (WEF) engaged the authors of this report to provide recommendations to EPA on a new methodology and guideline for assessing household affordability and community financial capability. The purpose of this report is to detail the findings and recommendations that resulted from this association sponsored effort. This report does not address the specific mechanisms for, or timing of, integrating the proposed methodologies or derivative approaches into practice. How such changes should be made is an important future discussion topic.Author(s)R. RaucherJ. ClementsE. RothsteinJ. MastracchioZ. GreenDocument typeTechnical ReportPublisherAmerican Water Works AssociationNational Association of Clean Water AgenciesWater Environment FederationPrint publication date Apr, 2019Volume / Issue First / last page(s)1 - 129Copyright2019Word count16Subject keywordsAffordabilityfinanceWastewaterdrinking waterstormwaterfinancinghousehold affordabilityeconomic hardshipfinancial capability assessmentrate settingMoving and Removing Mountains of Grit at SFPUC's New 250 MGD HeadworksThe following conference paper was presented at WEFTEC 2021, October 16-20, 2021. To read the full abstract, see "Abstract" tab below.SpeakerRaasch, TeriPresentation time13:35:0013:45:00Session time13:30:0015:00:00SessionWet Weather Treatment InnovationsSession number506TopicFacility Operations and Maintenance, Municipal Wastewater Treatment Design, Resilience, Disaster Planning and RecoveryTopicFacility Operations and Maintenance, Municipal Wastewater Treatment Design, Resilience, Disaster Planning and RecoveryAuthor(s)Teri RaaschAuthor(s)T.L. Raasch1; W.T. Karam2; M. Esquer3; J. Desai4; V. Shih5;Author affiliation(s)Carollo Engineers, Costa Mesa, CA1,2,3San Francisco Public Utilities Commission, San Francisco, CA4,5SourceProceedings of the Water Environment FederationDocument typeConference PaperPublisherWater Environment FederationPrint publication date Oct, 2021DOI10.2175/193864718825158164Volume / Issue Content sourceWEFTECCopyright2021Word count13AbstractThis paper covers the unique challenges, goals, and design of the grit system for SFPUC's new 250 MGD headworks facility at their Southeast Plant (SEP). Their grit challenges stem from the configuration and operation of SFPUC's collection system. The project goals include resiliency and high level of redundancy to protect of downstream equipment in all flow scenarios. This requires targeted solutions to achieve high performance requirements within a constrained space. This paper will review the approach Carollo Engineers, Inc. used to understand SFPUC's grit issues, select the technology, and implement customized solutions to address design challenges of the new grit removal and grit handling facilities.Digital Resiliency through Augmented RealityAlthough the traditional resiliency planning successfully ensured continued operations, most utilities were not adequately prepared for the digital requirements to send non-essential staff home to work. Telecommuting infrastructure (networks, mobile devices, etc.) was generally lacking for most utilities, and while traditional telecommuting tools are not practical for the Operations & Maintenance staff, proper digital resiliency planning can ensure sustainable and safe operation for all staff, now and well-beyond COVID.SpeakerNewberg, RichardPresentation time14:30:0014:45:00Session time13:30:0015:00:00SessionDigital Transformation: Leveraging Smart Infrastructure and Data Analytics to Optimize PerformanceSession number508TopicAsset Management, Intelligent Water, Urban Systems, Utility Management and LeadershipTopicAsset Management, Intelligent Water, Urban Systems, Utility Management and LeadershipAuthor(s)Richard NewbergAuthor(s)R. Newberg1; A. Corriveau2; S. Aldridge3;Author affiliation(s)CDMSmith, Maitland, FL1CDMSmith, Boston, MA 2Company Scott Aldridge (Speaker), Raleigh, NC3SourceProceedings of the Water Environment FederationDocument typeConference PaperPublisherWater Environment FederationPrint publication date Oct, 2021DOI10.2175/193864718825158146Volume / Issue Content sourceWEFTECCopyright2021Word count6AbstractThe original Benjamin Franklin quote, "If you fail to plan, you are planning to fail" rings true, especially in a post-covid era. In the spring of 2020, as the country shuttered its schools and businesses, water and wastewater utilities across the nation were forced to invoke their Emergency Response Plans and Continuity of Operations Plans to ensure our nation's critical infrastructure remained operational. Granted, these plans were successful and solidified the value of resiliency planning, however they also revealed a significant gap with respect to digital resiliency planning. Digital resilience relies upon enlisting technology planning and emerging digital solutions to ensure business continuity and safeguard operations. Although the traditional resiliency planning successfully ensured continued operations, most utilities were not adequately prepared for the digital requirements to send non-essential staff home to work. Telecommuting infrastructure (networks, mobile devices, etc.) was generally lacking for most utilities, and while traditional telecommuting tools are not practical for the Operations & Maintenance staff, proper digital resiliency planning can ensure sustainable and safe operation for all staff, now and well-beyond COVID. Although most frontline workers at treatment facilities have to be on-site to maintain and operate the critical infrastructure, Operators and Maintenance staff can still leverage leading-edge tools, such as Augmented Reality (AR) and knowledge management systems to safeguard quality operations and their own personal safety. This new breed of personal and portable computing technologies enables workers to view and interact with digital information in a hands-free manner. Using wearable devices, the user is delivered a first-person perspective of virtual information, such as text and images, with the surrounding physical environment to receive context-specific data and knowledge. This ultimately provides frontline workers with a first-person perspective of all relevant resources, including manuals, operating procedures, and even video, right at their fingertips. Key Takeaways: Strengthening digital resiliency using AR yields numerous benefits to the Utility industry, including the following: - Emergency response and quality performance - Institutional knowledge capture and transfer - Empowering the Next Generation of Utility experts - Remote viewing, communication and supportGlycerol Driven EBPR Correlated with Tetrasphaera EnrichmentThe following conference paper was presented at WEFTEC 2021, October 16-20, 2021. To read the full abstract, see "Abstract" tab below.SpeakerMehrdad, MahsaPresentation time11:10:0011:20:00Session time11:00:0012:00:00SessionTo Ferment or Not to Ferment: Experiences with Carbon Management, Addition, and Generation for Nutrient RemovalSession number418TopicFacility Operations and Maintenance, Municipal Wastewater Treatment Design, NutrientsTopicFacility Operations and Maintenance, Municipal Wastewater Treatment Design, NutrientsAuthor(s)Mahsa MehrdadAuthor(s)M. Mehrdad1; S. Ledwell1; R. Coleman1;Author affiliation(s)Environmental Operating Solutions Inc, Pocasset, MA1SourceProceedings of the Water Environment FederationDocument typeConference PaperPublisherWater Environment FederationPrint publication date Oct, 2021DOI10.2175/193864718825158131Volume / Issue Content sourceWEFTECCopyright2021Word count8AbstractEnhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) is considered a potentially efficient and economical process to meet stringent phosphorus (P) discharge requirement in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The success of EBPR depends on the presence of adequate organic compounds in the influent wastewater. In plants with low influent organics, addition of an external carbon source is necessary to support both denitrification and EBPR. In recent years, glycerol, has obtained great attention as a non-corrosive and economical alternative supplemental carbon source for EBPR process. Many facilities with different influent characteristics, configurations and anaerobic retention time have observed improvement in the EBPR process after glycerol addition. Although utilization of glycerol has been increased in WWTPs, the number of studies investigating its role on EBPR process is limited. The overall goal of this study is to investigate glycerol driven EBPR process and develop effective operation criteria. To achieve the objectives, a survey of full scale EBPR facilities utilizing glycerol as supplemental carbon source, batch testing and 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing were conducted. The effect of glycerol on phosphorus release and uptake kinetics was evaluated via full scale assessment and batch testing. Microbial composition of various glycerol acclimated sludge samples was assessed to identify a correlation between glycerol usage and the growth of different PAO groups. This study aims to propose an anaerobic metabolic model for PAOs with glycerol as the carbon source.Investigation on the impact of operation and carbon fractionation on unintended nitrogen and phosphorus removal in wastewater facilities in the San Francisco BayWhile most municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in California do not have biological nutrients removal (BNR) process, unintended nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) removal was observed in several WWTPs in the San Francisco (SF) Bay. Understanding the process kinetic and microbial structure of these natural systems may improve our knowledge of BNR process. This study evaluated the process performance and microbial community structure in these unintended BNR systems.SpeakerZhang, YihanPresentation time11:00:0011:10:00Session time11:00:0012:00:00SessionTo Ferment or Not to Ferment: Experiences with Carbon Management, Addition, and Generation for Nutrient RemovalSession number418TopicFacility Operations and Maintenance, Municipal Wastewater Treatment Design, NutrientsTopicFacility Operations and Maintenance, Municipal Wastewater Treatment Design, NutrientsAuthor(s)Yihan ZhangAuthor(s)Y. Zhang1; M. Kinyua2;Author affiliation(s)University of California at Davis, One Shields Ave, Davis, CA1,2SourceProceedings of the Water Environment FederationDocument typeConference PaperPublisherWater Environment FederationPrint publication date Oct, 2021DOI10.2175/193864718825158130Volume / Issue Content sourceWEFTECCopyright2021Word count24AbstractIn California, the San Francisco (SF) Bay has become one of the most nutrient-enriched estuary in the world due to high nutrient discharges into the watershed (Cloern and Jassby, 2012). Research shows that the SF Bay has been gradually losing its resiliency to nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) pollution and may suffer from severe water quality impairment in the near future (Cloern et al., 2020; Novick and Senn, 2014). While wastewater discharges are considered a major contributor of nutrient point-source pollution to the environment (Drolc and Zagorc Koncan, 2002), most municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in the SF Bay do not have biological nutrient removal (BNR) processes. In an effort to protect water quality and meet future nutrient discharge limits, 37 WWTPs in the SF Bay have participated in nutrient reduction studies led by the Bay Area Clean Water Agency (BACWA) (Falk et al., 2018). The short-term objective of these studies is to evaluate the current treatment performance and seek opportunities for total nitrogen (TN) reduction via treatment optimization or upgrading. The long-term objective is to incorporate total phosphorus (TP) reduction into the treatment process. Among these 37 WWTPs, several of them have an anaerobic selector in the secondary treatment process. Although the original intent for this design feature was filaments control, some of these facilities have reported unintended N and P removal. This provides an interesting opportunity to evaluate the technical feasibility of optimizing and/or upgrading existing systems to achieve N and P removal. However, to the best of our knowledge, no previous study has examined the carbon fractionation and microbial community compositions in these plants and their influence on nutrients reduction rate. Therefore, the objective of this study is to quantify the impact of operational parameters (e.g., retention times) and influent characteristics (i.e., COD fractions) on N and P reduction capacities in these WWTPs. This may enable us to identify facility specific features that will provide information in the nutrients removal design decision making process. Because this is an ongoing project, only operational and analytical data is presented here. Microbial community characteristics using 16S rRNA gene analysis will be performed to determine the dominant polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs), ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) communities in these systems.Evaluating the Potential of Nutrient Amendment and Bioaugmentation to Improve Secondary Treatment Efficiency in Bench Scale Aerated Stabilization BasinsAerated stabilization basins (ASBs) which are a widely utilized wastewater treatment system in North American Kraft Pulp Mills. Bioaugmentation or the addition of viable bacteria has been observed to reduce the nutrient requirements in realworld ASB applications. A bench-scale aerated stabilization basin study was performed to confirm the benefits of bioaugmentation. Six reactors were fed Kraft paper mill wastewater, along with varying doses of macronutrient blends, with and without bioaugmentation. Reactors that received supplemental nutrients or bioaugmentation showed better biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) removal than the control reactor, and the reactor that received high nutrient showed similar BOD removal compared to the reactor that received low nutrient and bioaugmentation. This presentation discusses the interrelationships among hydraulic retention time, macronutrient addition, and supplemental bioaugmentation in the treatment of Kraft Mill waster effluent streams.SpeakerFoster, MichaelPresentation time11:20:0011:30:00Session time11:00:0012:30:00SessionKnowledge Development Forum: Bioaugmentation - 2 Perspectives and Aerobic Membrane Advances AppliedSession number417TopicIndustrial Issues and Treatment Technologies, Research and InnovationTopicIndustrial Issues and Treatment Technologies, Research and InnovationAuthor(s)Michael FosterAuthor(s)M. Foster1; A.M. Arling2;Author affiliation(s)EBS, Mandeville, LA1,2SourceProceedings of the Water Environment FederationDocument typeConference PaperPublisherWater Environment FederationPrint publication date Oct, 2021DOI10.2175/193864718825158115Volume / Issue Content sourceWEFTECCopyright2021Word count20AbstractSufficient macronutrients are critical for biological wastewater treatment, especially in aerated stabilization basins (ASBs), which require continuous bacterial synthesis. However, it is not usually practical to add theoretical nutrient requirements, due to the cost of nutrients and concerns about effluent nutrient concentrations. Bioaugmentation, or the addition of viable bacteria to the system, has been observed to reduce the nutrient requirements in aerated stabilization basins. A bench-scale aerated stabilization basin study was performed to confirm the benefits of bioaugmentation. Six reactors were fed Kraft paper mill wastewater, along with high or low doses of ammonia polyphosphate blends and bioaugmentation/no bioaugmentation. Over the course of the study, all reactors that received supplemental nutrients or bioaugmentation showed better biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) removal than the control reactor, and the reactor that received high nutrient showed similar BOD removal compared to the reactor that received low nutrient and bioaugmentation.School House Rock: How a Bill becomes a Law and then Fully DefinedDive deep into the details of the Renewable Fuel Standards regulatory details that allow wastewater utilities to generate serious $$$$ from digester-gas upgrading and use of rCNG to fuel vehicles. Congress’ original Legislation is linked to EPA’s RFS1, RFS2, and Pathways-II Regulations and the process/effort/timeline for EPA’s creation of rules is reviewed in detail. Other more routine related actions are also discussed.SpeakerWillis, JohnPresentation time13:30:0013:45:00Session time13:30:0014:30:00SessionBiogas: Market-based Decisions for Resource RecoverySession number507TopicBiosolids and Residuals, Energy Production, Conservation, and Management, Policy and RegulationTopicBiosolids and Residuals, Energy Production, Conservation, and Management, Policy and RegulationAuthor(s)John WillisAuthor(s)J. Willis1;R. Bastian2;Author affiliation(s)Brown and Caldwell, Atlanta, GA1Former US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) –Office of Water, DC2SourceProceedings of the Water Environment FederationDocument typeConference PaperPublisherWater Environment FederationPrint publication date Oct, 2021DOI10.2175/193864718825158168Volume / Issue Content sourceWEFTECCopyright2021Word count14AbstractI’m just a bill, sitting here on Capitol Hill… While almost everyone 45 years old or older knows the refrain, we rarely consider the linkage between environmental regulations that shape wastewater-treatment operations/projects and the legislated authority that Congress must create to frame that structure. Instead, questions like: “Doesn’t the United States (US) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) understand that making all co-digestion biogas renewable identification numbers (RINs) only Advanced (or “D5”) instead of Cellulosic (or “D3”; that are worth 2 to 2.5 times the value of D5s) discourages water resource recovery facilities (WRRFs) from recovering more resources?”; or “Why doesn’t the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) fairly provide for electric RINs (e-RINS)?” are heard all too often. This paper is less about how Congress creates laws – and more about what happens afterwards to make federal policy and programs that deliver benefits to the public at-large and the environment.Securing a Resilient Future with New Technology and Alternative Delivery Construction: Lessons Learned from the NCPCP Disinfection Improvements ProjectIn 2014 Fairfax County undertook an evaluation of their disinfection process to address aging infrastructure and develop a long-term approach for resilient tertiary treatment through implementation of advanced disinfection technology, sustainable design, and alternative delivery construction. This “case study” provides a summary of Fairfax County’s Disinfection Improvements Project from design, through construction, and commissioning. It will focus on the unique aspects of the project that demonstrate Fairfax County’s approach to securing a resilient future and provide valuable insight for utilities planning high-profile capital improvement projects.SpeakerVanhorne, MatthewPresentation time14:00:0014:30:00Session time13:30:0015:00:00SessionLeveraging Collaborative Delivery to Achieve Project GoalsSession number509TopicUtility Management and LeadershipTopicUtility Management and LeadershipAuthor(s)Matthew VanhorneAuthor(s)S. Chitrakar2; M.P. Vanhorne1; J.R. Carroll1; J. Pavlus3; G. Xiao2;Author affiliation(s)Hazen and Sawyer, Fairfax, VA1Fairfax County Department of Public Works and Environmental Services, Lorton, VA2Ulliman Schutte Construction, Fairfax, VA3SourceProceedings of the Water Environment FederationDocument typeConference PaperPublisherWater Environment FederationPrint publication date Oct, 2021DOI10.2175/193864718825158150Volume / Issue Content sourceWEFTECCopyright2021Word count20AbstractThe Fairfax County Department of Public Works and Environmental Services (DPWES) owns and operates the 67 mgd Noman Cole Jr. Pollution Control Plant (NCPCP) in Lorton, VA. The facility uses preliminary, primary, secondary and tertiary treatment to meet stringent wastewater discharge criteria for the effluent that ultimately flows into the Chesapeake Bay. DPWES is in the process of implementing $700M in capital improvement and reinvestment projects over the next 10 years. These improvements will span the entire treatment process as well as many support systems and ensure the County continues to maintain a high-quality effluent for decades to come. In 2014 Fairfax County undertook an evaluation of their disinfection process to address aging infrastructure and develop a long-term approach for resilient tertiary treatment through implementation of advanced disinfection technology, sustainable design, and alternative delivery construction. This case study provides a summary of Fairfax County's award winning Disinfection Improvements Project from design, through construction, and commissioning. It will focus on the unique aspects of the project that demonstrate Fairfax County's approach to securing a resilient future and provide valuable insight for utilities planning high-profile capital improvement projects.SARS-CoV-2 Wastewater Measurements Normalized Using BiomarkersThe COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the potential role that wastewater-based epidemiology can play in assessing aggregate community health. Efforts to translate Sars-CoV-2 gene copy numbers obtained from wastewater samples into meaningful community health indicators are nascent. In this study, four biomarkers (ammonia, biological oxygen demand, creatinine, and human mitochondrial gene NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5) were quantified and used to normalize Sars-CoV-2 gene copy numbers. These data were correlated to case data. Mitochondrial and creatinine normalization methods showed the strongest correlations throughout the studying indicating that human-specific biomarkers were better at normalizing wastewater data than ammonia or BOD.SpeakerHutchison, JustinPresentation time14:10:0014:30:00Session time13:30:0015:00:00SessionBuilding a Successful Wastewater-based Epidemiology (WBE) ProgramSession number501TopicFundamental Level, Laboratory Practices, Public Communication and Outreach, Utility Management and LeadershipTopicFundamental Level, Laboratory Practices, Public Communication and Outreach, Utility Management and LeadershipAuthor(s)Justin HutchisonAuthor(s)J. Hutchison1; B. Sturm1; Z.N. Li1; M. Wittman1; T. Stiles3; A. Depew1; R.T. Flynn2; A. Romero1;Author affiliation(s)Department of Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering, The University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS1Municipal Services & Operations, City of Lawrence, Lawrence, KS2Bureau of Water, Kansas Department of Health and Environment, Topeka, KS3SourceProceedings of the Water Environment FederationDocument typeConference PaperPublisherWater Environment FederationPrint publication date Oct, 2021DOI10.2175/193864718825158143Volume / Issue Content sourceWEFTECCopyright2021Word count7AbstractAs of November 2020, COVID-19 has led to more than 63 million cases and 1.47 million deaths with 270,481 of those deaths in the US. While COVID-19 commonly presents as a respiratory illness, symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals shed the COVID-causative agent (SARS-CoV-2) in their stool. This observation has motivated significant efforts to quantify SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater. The ultimate goal of these measurements is to offer an assessment of the disease prevalence within a community, which is an approach referred to as wastewater-based epidemiology. The quantification of SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater relies on concentrating and assessing the number of viral particles in wastewater using SARS-CoV-2 specific genes (nucleocapsid, N1 and N2). Recent work evaluated the performance of several concentration methods, including ultrafiltration, electronegative membranes, and polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation (1). The PEG method demonstrated high yield and consistent recovery. In the same study, for quantification, the SARS-CoV-2 N1 was measured at a slightly higher but significant value compared to N2. Work is ongoing to develop robust protocols for SARS-CoV-2 quantification. However, to fully realize the potential of wastewater-based epidemiology, additional methods must be developed to normalize the SARS-CoV-2 concentrations to population equivalence. It is well known that wastewater concentrations vary significantly with wet weather flow, thus a normalization technique must account for variations in wastewater strength. Wastewater concentrations under dry weather will also change with transient populations, and this is especially important for a college town or business community with commuter activity. Biomarkers can be used to determine the number of individuals contributing fecal matter to a sewershed. Ideally, biomarkers are specific to human waste, stable in wastewater, and consistently shed at known rates. This abstract reflects work to develop wastewater-based epidemiology as a tool to inform public health decisions by normalizing SARS-CoV-2 concentrations using four biomarkers. Weekly SARS-CoV-2 concentrations in influent wastewater were determined from two wastewater plants in Lawrence, KS. These concentrations have been normalized with four different biomarkers, and this SARS-CoV-2 data has been statistically correlated with COVID-19 case data. The overall purpose is to determine the most predictive metric for public health surveillance.Comparison of Life Cycle Costs at Operating Cogeneration and RNG FacilitiesThe conversion of biogas to electricity through cogeneration or to renewable natural gas (RNG) for pipeline injection or vehicle fueling has received increasing interest at water resource recovery facilities (WRRFs). For both uses, operation and maintenance (O&M) data from facilities is limited, making it difficult for WRRFs to accurately assess life cycle costs. WRRFs often rely on O&M costs provided by manufacturers. This paper compares manufacturer O&M cost estimates to operational data at ten facilities that run either cogeneration or RNG upgrading facilities and finds that actual O&M costs are higher than manufacturer O&M estimates, despite conservative assumptions.SpeakerLuna, BeckyPresentation time13:45:0014:00:00Session time13:30:0014:30:00SessionBiogas: Market-based Decisions for Resource RecoverySession number507TopicBiosolids and Residuals, Energy Production, Conservation, and Management, Policy and RegulationTopicBiosolids and Residuals, Energy Production, Conservation, and Management, Policy and RegulationAuthor(s)Becky LunaAuthor(s)B.J. Luna2; T.G. Mossinger3; T. Dougherty4;E. Charbonnet1;Author affiliation(s)Carollo Engineers, Broomfield, CO 1,2,4Carollo Engineers, Portland OR3SourceProceedings of the Water Environment FederationDocument typeConference PaperPublisherWater Environment FederationPrint publication date Oct, 2021DOI10.2175/193864718825158136Volume / Issue Content sourceWEFTECCopyright2021Word count12AbstractAn increasing number of water resource recovery facilities (WRRFs) are considering options for beneficial use of biogas due to an increasing focus, both internally and externally, on resource recovery and sustainability. Conversion of biogas to electricity (through cogeneration) and to renewable natural gas (RNG) (for pipeline injection or vehicle fueling) are often considered side by side as alternatives that can produce revenue and reduce the greenhouse gas footprint of WRRFs. While there are a large number of WRRFs across the country that have operated cogeneration systems over the last decades, operating costs can vary significantly depending upon the technology selected, condition of the raw biogas, and age of the system. In addition, while the technology used to convert biogas to RNG is established, pipeline injection and vehicle fueling projects remain relatively few and far between in the U.S. These unknowns make it difficult to quantify O&M costs for utilities considering a biogas utilization project. This complicates the evaluations of these systems, since long-term operating and maintenance (O&M) costs are a significant factor in selection of a recommended alternative.